Nevertheless, the trend was still to have women resume their traditional roles. And because many refused to be relegated to status quo and go back to the kitchen or the practice of home economics, they focused their energy on organising powerful social movements, NGOs and feminist organisations. These strengths account for the quotas that have been adopted by 16 Latin American countries and allowed them to have o ne woman for every four legislators. Only the Nordic countries have higher ratios. A woman president who would defy the masculine model of power and infuse it with the feminine ethic of caring and real equality is still in the making.
Although women as Latin American leaders have many challenges ahead, they have managed to get to the right place, and now they have to be daring enough to seize or declare that it is the right time. Join our community of development professionals and humanitarians. Follow the conversation on the hashtag LatAmNow. Facebook Twitter Pinterest. Topics Working in development Latin America Now. Reuse this content.
Order by newest oldest recommendations. Show 25 25 50 All. Machismo isn't biological, it is historical, cultural, psycho-social and interpersonal. Some of the well known traits are;. The psycho-social traits as can be summarized as; emotional invulnerability, patriarchal dominance, and aggressive or controlling responses to stimuli, inferiority and ambivalence toward women.
There is controversy surrounding the concept of machismo as originally from Spanish and Portuguese descent. The use of Spanish and Portuguese produces historical colonial connotations through its promotion of Spanish and Portuguese masculine social construction, when the term should be used to describe specific Latin American historical masculinities.
In addition, by identifying machismo as a form of Europeanness, it offers legitimacy to the concept of a wicked formed of the same Western hypermasculinity known to Protestant Reforme-derived cultures and subjugates Latin America's understanding of itself and its cultural history and peculiarities. For example, the use of caballerosidad , Cavalheirismo,to mean only the positive characteristics of machismo is imbued with feudal and colonial connotations relating to colonial power relations.
This is because the origin of the word caballero resides in feudal Spanish descriptions of landlords that reached through and into the colonial era, exalts  European culture in comparison to the so-called Latin American machismo animalesque, irrational, violent, backward. Researchers are concerned regarding the unbalanced representation of machismo within Latin American cultures, and are now focused on creating a balanced representation.
The negative construct of machismo is based on the traditional Western concept of hypermasculinity, and is predominant within mainstream discourse, without an acknowledgement towards its resemblance towards hypermasculinty. Caballerosidad 's characteristics are exalted, while machismo's characteristics are seen as predominantly negative. The other side of machismo, the positive side caballerosidad , cavalheirismo , refers to a connection to family and chivalry.
However, the focus on the negative aspects and avoidance of positive aspects of machismo coincides with the concept of marginalization and powerlessness  of Hispanic and Latino, and more broadly Romance-speaking European culture-derived, narratives. This is because the focus on the negative and avoidance of the positive creates a power dynamic that legitimizes mainstream American hegemonic masculinity as the correct masculinity and subjugates machismo as a degenerated "non-white" form of abuse against women and backwardness. As a result, it creates a sense of powerlessness within Latino males in their expression of their masculinity.
The phenomena of gender-based belief systems having negative and positive effects is described as ambivalent sexism , which is made of hostile sexism and benevolent sexism. Academics have noted that there are consequences of only having a negative definition for Hispanic and Latino masculinity in popular literature.
Accordingly, they link these expressions as contributing to a lack of interest in academics as well as behavioural struggles in schools for Latino male youth. Throughout popular literature, the term has continued to be associated with negative characteristics, such as sexism , misogyny , chauvinism , hypermasculinity , and hegemonic masculinity. Authors from a various disciplines typified macho men as domineering through intimidation, seducing and controlling women and children through violence and intimidation.
For example, in American literature, an example of machismo comes from Tennessee Williams ' character Stanley Kowalski , an egotistical brother-in-law, from A Streetcar Named Desire. In the play and film adaptation , Stanley epitomizes the tough, alpha-male hypermasculine archetype , socially and physically dominating and imposing his will upon his wife and her sister, Blanche Dubois.
Bound up with Stanley's aggressive and occasionally misogynistic views is a strong sense of pride and honor which leads to his hatred of Blanche. In the play A View from the Bridge by Arthur Miller , one of the main characters, Eddie, is a classic type who displays machismo. He wants to be the best of the men around him and when beaten, becomes very agitated and increasingly irrational.
The negative stereotypes depicted in American literature are not representative of all the different layers of machismo. Machismo has been influenced and supported by many different factors. The Catholic religion plays a vital role to many within the Spanish community. For this reason the male dominated world that is often referenced in the Bible is seen among the people. The revolution of copper mining sets the tone of traditional masculinity. Women's presence in social settings is not prominent, so men's dominance and inevitable homosocial interactions create kinship and brotherhood.
Exploitation of masculinity through the context of miners is prominent and embodied by Chilean males. As a territory of the U. In regards to equality and what separates men and women, gender roles determine what is socially acceptable in different geographical areas. In Puerto Rico the machismo culture has or had [ vague ] a strong presence.
MACHO | meaning in the Cambridge English Dictionary
Men were to work outside the home, manage the finances, and make the decisions. Women were to be subordinate to their husbands and be the homemakers. Women would often would have to be dependent on men for everything. Growing up boys are taught to the machismo code girls are taught the marianismo code.
Machismo is a term originating in the early s and 40s best defined as having masculinity and Pride. Machismo is a factor challenged among different groups due to how an ideal man is expected to be portrayed which builds pressure. Mentally men may feel the need to take up more opportunities to meet expectations, such as supporting the home, or maintaining employment leading to stress. This may also take a toll as physically well straining to be strong and overexerting the body, or the opposite of putting on weight by not having the desired physique and feeling inferior.
This is further expressed through Puerto Ricans Americans outside the island. However, the roles are beginning to shift as women's rights and equality movements sweep the mainland, Puerto Rico is beginning to feel the effects. Beginning in the s the employment rate for women began to rise as the employment rate fell due to the island's industrialization. Also, during the s to s the field of the white collar women emerged furthering the rise in women employment. However, women were not released from their homemaker duties because they had a job.
In fact, women were now expected to contribute to the household's finances and be the homemaker. This caused a shift in what was acceptable in households. Men used to be able to come and go as they pleased as the women were dependent on them, however, after contributing to the household, acquiring more education, and being the homemaker women became more independent and conscious.
They no longer tolerated unfaithful men, controlling men, and violent men. This caused great inner conflict with the idea of the machismo culture. Young Puerto Rican women are expected to stay at home reproductively, [ vague ] as well as for the cultural reasons of productively being at home. There are rules made by Latin families that young women should not be influenced by the dangers of outside, for the portrayal of young women to be sexualized or vulnerable.
They are raised with these strict rules because some women experience pregnancy at a young age, and are not familiar to care for both themselves nor the responsibilities of a new child. Young women may even lack support from their own household families, and are blamed for not being properly educated. Puerto Rican families influenced by American culture; may express to bend traditional rules. These families do what they believe is best for their family, and further educate about sexual education and learn while virginity is valued until marriage.
LGBTQ community is also a conflicting issue to the machismo culture. Puerto Rico is known for its strong Christian community along with having a smaller Jewish and Muslim community as well. Due to changing times and influence from America the LGBTQ movement has been a strong force for equality, which in Puerto Rico has not always been accepted; and even harmed [ citation needed ] in the process due to difference.
A new term to differentiate gender is Latinx, and Latine a variant used to pronounce easily throughout Latin America is a gender neutral form of addressing someone compared to the familiar male Latino or female Latina. Minorities are treated differently in Puerto Rico despite the blending of three races. Puerto Ricans face racism amongst themselves in their community and at work solely based on their color of their skin.
People with even the slightest pigment were not considered white, and segregation exist within the island; where minorities may live in different regions of the island with others of color. Therefore, the pre-Columbian use of the word macho had to do with wisdom and leadership that was worthy of imitation, while gender was not involved. When the Spanish came, their use of the word macho was strictly masculine.
Therefore, after the Spanish invasion a new word, idea and concept was born: that a macho was a masculine leader, who was enlightened and worthy of imitation. It was always a positive term. Therefore, in Mexico, the use of the word macho may provoke confusion if it is not used precisely or in context. Machismo is a source of pride for men and they must prove their manliness by upholding their dominance in their reputation and their household. Machismo comes from the assertion of male dominance in everyday life. Examples of this would be men dominating their wives, controlling their children, and demanding the utmost respect from others in the household.
Machismo has become deeply woven in Cuban society and have created barriers for women to reach full equality. The reason for this is the patriarchy that runs high in Cuban society. Cuba's patriarchal society stems from the fact that Spain has had a history of using brutal war tactics and humiliation as a means to keep and establish their power. Tomas de Torquemada, who ruled as a grand inquisitor under King Ferdinand and Queen Elizabeth of Spain , used degrading and humiliating forms of torture to get information out of prisoners.
Men like Torquemada create the domino effect throughout history of repressive and toxic masculinity that has plagued Cuban society. Machismo is also a modernized ideology from Islamic and African cultures of structured hierarchy of only male chief, sub-chiefs. Grajales was the embodiment of male power and dominance. Due to the long list of past male Cuban leaders like Fidel Castro. Even though he represented a revolution, he was still a powerful and dominating man who ruled over the people. Thus furthering that a male dominated political society is superior.
According to Catholic Church teachings , the female should be a virgin and faithful to her husband, but by contrast, the male has more sexual freedom. Men were supposed to express between physical loves, while women were expected to only express spiritual love. Even after marriage , carnal love was frowned upon if the woman expressed it too vigorously, instead she was supposed to be more delighted by the possibility of having and raising children as a means to express the love.
Because of the objectification of women , domestic violence often ignored when women decide to seek help from the police. Domestic abuse victims are given psychological counseling as a way to cope with their trauma, but little is done criminally to solve the problem. This organization, headed by Vilma Espin , Castro's sister in law, helped women establish themselves better into the working world and in women's right issues.
They are also now able to get access to sexual abuse therapies. Because Machismo is so entrenched into the very systems that keep women oppressed, women in Cuba don't hold political or monetary positions of power. Many feminist scholars have described this phenomena, which takes place in other cultures, as the second shift, based on a book by Arlie Russell Hochschild by the same name.
Cubans are now beginning to leave state employment, to search for jobs in tourism. These jobs produce a great deal of profit because of the wealthy tourists that visit the island and leave good tips. Cubans who were once professors and doctors are now leaving their old jobs to become bartenders and some to even drive cabs , these tourism jobs are primarily held by men; machismo has once again given men more financial power. Fidel Castro once said on homosexuality in a interview with American journalist Lee Lockwood , "A deviation of that nature clashes with the concept we have of what a militant communist should be.
CENESEX has sought to decrease homophobia in Cuba by increasing sexual awareness by holding social gatherings like anti homophobic rallies. In , A new Cuban Law came onto the island. The Codigo de la Familia Family Law. It became into effect on March 8, , just 15 years after the Cuban Revolution. The new Family Law of really helped a lot of women get jobs on the island and provided children with protection under the law so that child begging and homelessness amongst children was practically eradicated.
The law also stated that it was required for both sexes to participated in domestic chores  But just because the law was passed, does not mean it was heavily reinforced, particularly in the domestic sphere.
The New American Macho: a chauvenistic path to Humanity
This new family law was not received well by many people in Cuba , particularly men who backlashed against the law. These grievances reflected in the media that was made in Cuba, particularly, during the " Golden Age of Cuban Cinema". In the opening scene of this movie, there is an interview with a young black man who is asked about machismo. The film that Oscar was meant to write for is directed by his friend Arturo.
Young American women blame macho culture for toxic workplaces
Both are well educated men with stable careers in their fields, wives, cars and other luxuries. However, Arturo believes that the issue of Machismo is most directly a working class problem and that it is up to educated men such as himself and Oscar, to raise consciousness on the issue. Oscar and Arturo use working class dock-workers to use as research for their film.
This is where they meet Lina, a working-class woman who is in charge of the dock workers. In the beginning of the film she is represented to be tough on her workers and is well respected amongst all the men she works with. Oscar, the screenwriter , finds himself enamored with her tough attitudes, which is very different than women he has met before.
Oscar sees that this is not the kind of woman he is used to. Throughout the movie, although Oscar is having an affair on his wife, he finds himself being more empathetic to working-class struggles in a way that his friend Arturo isn't. It also problematizes, bourgeois men who believe they are intellectually above everyone else, including issues on machismo and women's equality. Many women identify that machismo is perpetuated through the pressure to raise children a certain way and instill social constructions of gender throughout a child's development.
These aspects set up the environment through which the ideology perpetuates itself. There is accumulating evidence that supports the relation between the way men are traditionally socialized to be masculine and its harmful mental and physical health consequences. Similarly, a well-documented disparity notes Latino adolescents reporting higher levels of depression than other ethnic backgrounds. Research suggests this may be associated to adolescent perceived gender role discrepancies which challenge the traditional perceptions of gender role i.
Enhanced understanding on associations between the gender role conceptualizations of machismo with negative cognitive-emotional factors may prove invaluable to mental health professionals. Many counseling psychologists are interested in further studies for comprehending the connection between counseling for males and topics such as sex-role conflicts and male socialization. Several elements of machismo are considered psychologically harmful for men.
One key aspect of Machismo's association to violence is its influence in a man's behavior towards proving his strength  While strength and fortitude are recognized as key components to the stereotype of machismo, demonstrations of violence and aggressive actions have become almost expected of men and have been justified as desirable products of being tough and macho. It can be implied that "if you are violent, you are strong and thus more of a man than those who back down or do not fight". Violent encounters can stem from the desire to protect his family, friends, and particularly his female relatives that are vulnerable to the machismo actions of other men,  However, through jealousy, competitiveness, and pride, violent encounters are also often pursued to demonstrate his strength to others.
A man's insecurities can be fueled by a number of pressures.
Event: Maintaining the momentum for the SDGs – Latin America
These range from societal pressures to "be a man" to internal pressures of overcoming an inferiority complex,  This can translate into actions that devalue feminine characteristics and overemphasize the characteristics of strength and superiority attributed to masculinity,  In many cases, a man's position of superiority over a female partner can lead him to gain control over different aspects of her life. With little opportunity for attaining an income, minimal means to get an education, and the few people they have as a support system, many women become dependent on their husbands financially and emotionally.
The power difference in the relationship between a man and a woman not only creates the social norm of machismo, but by consequence also creates the social concept of marianismo. Marianismo derives its origins from Spanish Colonization, as many social constructs from Latin America do. It emphasizes the perfect femininity of a woman and her virginity. One could argue that in the similar manner of Patriarchy, the man is the head of the household while the "fragile" woman is submissive and tends to remain behind the scenes.
This brings to focus the idea that women are inferior and are thus dependent on their husbands. As a result, they not only rely on their husbands for financial support, but in the social realm are put at the same level as "children under age 12, mentally ill persons, and spendthrifts"  By way of tradition, not only are women given limited opportunities in what they are able to do and to be, but they are also viewed as people that cannot even take care of themselves.
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Getting married provides a woman with security under her husband's success, but also entails a lifelong commitment towards serving her husband and her children. While social pressures and expectations play huge roles in the perpetuation of the marianismo construct, this ideology is also taught to girls as they grow up. They are taught that these must be done well so that they can adequately serve their families and avoid punishment and discipline by their authoritative husbands.
Some experts hypothesize, since there is a lack of empirical research on gender-role conflicts, that men might suffer from such conflicts because of their fear of femininity. Professionals from several universities in the United States developed a model around this hypothesis with six behavioral patterns. The model was developed around the idea that these six patterns are all influenced by men's the fear of femininity.
One implication of the Machismo concept is the pressure for a man to be sexually experienced. Meanwhile, girls are oftentimes brought up to tolerate an unfaithful partner, since it is a part of the machismo culture. The risk is further heightened by the lack of condom use by men who are both miseducated about the effectiveness of a condom's protection against STIs and the belief that this wouldn't happen to them.
For men in many Latin American countries, their perceived level of masculinity determines the amount of respect they receive in society. This, in turn, can limit their "ability to achieve upward social mobility, to be taken seriously, or to hold positions of power". To deal with such oppression, they must make the choice either to conform to heteronormativity and repress their homosexual identity, to assimilate towards masculine ideals and practices while maintaining their homosexual identity in private, or to openly express their homosexuality and suffer ostracization from society.
The more a man acts in accordance with the stereotypical heterosexual hegemonic masculinity , the higher on the social hierarchy they are. On the lower end of the hierarchy are the locas or maricones. As such, they receive little respect both in society in general and among the LGBT community. Many homosexual men resist being associated with the "loca" stereotype by either demonstrating overt masculinity or by ridiculing and distancing themselves from other "loca" men.
Homosexuality is perceived as negative or weak within the machista ideal. It doesn't fit into the masculine attributes that machismo extols.
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This often leads homosexual or bisexual men living in machista communities to be reluctant about being open about their sexuality because of the negative connotation associated with it. Familismo, which is an idea in Latin cultures that ties an individual with a commitment to his or her family, and homophobia can sometimes cause in homosexual individuals the repression of sexual identity, family separation, and to hide their sexuality. Regularly experiencing homophobia and low self-esteem have a connection with sexual risk.
A survey conducted by the Virginia Commonwealth University found that men who had high machismo values or characteristics were more than five times more probable to participate in activities or behave in a way to put them at risk for contracting HIV or an STI. Because of the negative connotations that come with identifying as homosexual, the definition of homosexuality has become ambiguous.